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How Do I Cite?

Learn about citing and citation styles.

Citation Elements

There are several different citation styles that you may be required to use during your university career. APA, MLA and Chicago (Turabian) being the most common. These citation styles are unique in formatting, but you will notice overlap in many of their citation elements.

Here are some examples of some of the more common citation types that you may encounter.

APA: Online Journal Article

Reference List:

Last Name, First Name Initials. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number (issue number), page range. doi:0000000/000000000000 or

Bull, D. (1992). Two portraits by Leonardo: "Ginevra de' Benci" and the "Lay with an Ermine."
     Artibus et Historiae, 13(25), 67-83.

In Text:

(Last Name, Year of Publication, Page Number)

(Bull, 1992, p. 76)

MLA: Print Book

Works Cited:

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date.

Morford, Mark P.O., et al. Classical Mythology. 9th ed., Oxford UP, 2011.

In Text:

(Last Name Page Number)

(Morford 22)

Chicago: Essay or Chapter in an Edited Collection


Last Name, First Name. "Chapter or Essay Title." In Book Title. Edited by First Name Last Name, page range. Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

Kriegel, Lara. "Narrating the Subcontinent in 1851: India at the Crystal Palace." In 
     The Great Exhibition of 1851: New Interdisciplinary Essays. Edited by Louise Purbick, 
     146-178. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001.

Footnote or Endnote:

First Name Last Name, "Chapter or Essay Title," in Book Title, ed. First Name Last Name (Place of Publication: Publisher, date), page(s).

     1. Lara Kriegel, “Narrating the Subcontinent in 1851: India at the Crystal Palace,” in 
The Great Exhibition of 1851: New Interdisciplinary Essays, ed. Louise Purbick (Manchester: 
Manchester University Press, 2001), 150.
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