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How Do I Cite?

Learn about citing and citation styles.

Citing Sources

Properly citing sources in your research assignment ...

  • distinguishes your contributions from those of other authors and gives them proper credit
  • enables readers to locate, verify and consult the sources used thereby supporting further study and analysis

If you do not identify the sources that have influenced or appeared in your paper (even if unintentional), you have committed plagiarism, an offence that can lead to penalties such as a failing grade or expulsion from your school.

Start to cite properly by learning the whowhatwhere and when of your source!


Who is responsible for writing it? For example:

  • Is there one obvious author or multiple?
  • Is there also an editor?
  • Is there no obvious author or is it credited to anonymous?

Who published it? For example:

  • Who is the publisher provided? This may vary according to source format.


What is your source format? For example:

  • Is it a book, journal article or other?
  • Is it an electronic or print journal article?
  • Is your book a monograph or an edited collection?


Where did you find it? For example:

  • Is it print or online?
  • Is it an e-book or print book?
  • Is the article from a database, platform or website?

When dealing with a book

  • Where was it published?


When was it published? For example:

  • When was the book or journal published?
  • Which edition did you consult?
  • When did you access it?
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