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How Do I Cite in MLA?

A guide to the 9th edition of the MLA style of citation.


MLA style is most commonly used in the arts, humanities, languages, linguistics, literature and cultural studies. If you are unsure whether to use MLA style for your coursework, ask your instructor.

This guide provides a brief introduction to the 9th edition of the MLA (Modern Language Association) style of citation [select links in left navigation menu]. NOTE: The previous guide for MLA Style (8th edition) is still available here.

Video iconHow to Write MLA Citations, 9th Edition (5:24) - McMaster University Library
This video illustrates how to write basic in-text citations and a Works Cited list according to the latest edition of MLA style.

Video Transcript (PDF) | Video Transcript (.docx)

For more detailed guidelines and procedures, consult the MLA Handbook and MLA Style Center website.

Official MLA Style Sources

What's New in the 9th edition of the MLA Handbook?

Key Features

  • expanded in-depth guidance on how to use the MLA template of core elements to create works-cited-list entries that shows what each core element is, where to find it, and how to style it
  • clarification that element names are not always literal and can apply to a range of situations
  • updated sample citations from a diverse range of works
  • new and plentiful visual examples
  • new, easy to follow explanations of in-text citations
  • a new chapter containing recommendations for using inclusive language
  • a new appendix with hundreds of sample works-cited-list entries listed by publication format, including books, databases, websites, YouTube videos, interviews, and more.
  • updated guidelines on avoiding plagiarism
  • new chapter on formatting a research paper
  • new, expanded guidelines on spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and more
  • a new chapter on using notes in MLA style

Source: VideoWhat's New in the Ninth Edition of the MLA Handbook? (Modern Language Association)

Screenshot of MLA webinar on 9th edition of MLA  HandbookTo learn more, watch this free webinar recording (55:15) [with registration] where MLA editors provide an overview of what’s covered in each chapter, discuss style changes, highlight new material, and answer questions.




See also:

Visit the MLA Style Center for advice and guidance on using MLA format. The website includes citation examples, sample papers, frequently asked questions, tools, tips, quizzes and more [hyperlinked screenshot below].

Screenshot of Using MLA Format from MLA Style Center [click image to visit]

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