This guide is based on the 8th edition of MLA Handbook (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2016). This handbook can be found on the 5th floor of Mills Memorial Library under the call number LB 2369 .G53 2016.
If the type of entry you need is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook or the resources listed in the "Additional Citation Guides" tab.
Author not named in text
Macbeth is socially inept because of Lady Macbeth’s controlling nature (Magnusson 25).
Author named in text
According to Magnusson, Macbeth is socially inept because of Lady Macbeth’s controlling nature (25).
Two or three authors
Macbeth is socially inept because of Lady Macbeth’s controlling nature (Magnusson and Willard 25).
Note: In-text citations for media (e.g. movies or podcasts) can be referenced by including the range of hours, minutes, or seconds you discuss in the text. For example: (00:1:20-00:01:135).
Your “Works Cited” list should include all the sources you quoted, paraphrased, or summarized in your assignment. This listing appears at the end of your assignment. When formatting your “Works Cited,” follow these standards:
Avoiding Plagiarism Checklist
Author. Title. Title of container (self contained if book), Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs URL or DOI). 2nd container’s title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).
For examples of how to cite multiple authors, Corporate or Organizational Authors, a book with no authors, a translated book, etc. please see this OWL guide.
*Note on abbreviations: In previous editions certain abbreviations could be used, such as "UP" when referring to a University Press, "ed." for "editor, ", or "trans." for "translated by". Based on the 8th edition these words should be spelled out fully. You should still abbreviate months with four or more letters (e.g. "December" is written as "Dec.").
Note on Using URLs in MLA: In lieu of the fact that web addresses tend to change, and because there can be multiple versions of the same document on the web, MLA specifies that using containers (e.g. JSTOR, Netflix, Spotify) in your citation will help the reader access and verify the source.
With MLA you are only required to use the www. address. Do not use the https:// when citing URLs.
If a DOI (digital object identifier) is attached to the document (such as a scholarly journal article) then you are expected to use the DOI instead of the URL.
Online newspapers and magazines often include a “permalink”- this is a shorter, stable version of a URL. Look for a “share” or “cite this” button to find this. Use a permalink instead of a URL if this option is available to you.
Note on Using Abbreviations with Electronic Sources: If page numbers aren’t available, use “par.” or “pars.” (instead of “p.” or “pp.” for page numbers) to note which note the paragraph numbers.
It isn’t required to note the date you accessed the webpage on, but including an “Accessed on” notation in your citation, if one is available, is encouraged. This is particularly encouraged if there is no copyright date listed on the website.
Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources (Including Databases): Note that not all web pages will provide the following information. Your job is to collect as much of the following information as possible for your citations:
Use the following format:
Author. Title. Title of container (self contained if book), Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs and/or URL, DOI or permalink). 2nd container’s title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).
For examples on how to cite Online Scholarly Journal Articles, E-mails, Blog posts, Tweets, YouTube videos and more please visit this OWL guide.