Provide an in-text citation when quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing someone else’s work. In-text citations should direct the reader to the entry in the Works Cited list.
CORE ELEMENTS FOR IN-TEXT CITATIONS
Author not named in text
Macbeth is socially inept because of Lady Macbeth’s controlling nature (Magnusson 25).
Author named in text
According to Magnusson, Macbeth is socially inept because of Lady Macbeth’s controlling nature (25).
Two or three authors
Connect both authors' surnames with and and include the page number.
Macbeth is socially inept because of Lady Macbeth’s controlling nature (Magnusson and Willard 25).
Four or more authors
If a source has more than three authors, use the first author’s surname followed by et al. and include the page number.
Lady Macbeth is both a strong and weak character in Shakespeare's play (Smith et al. 326).
Smith et al. argue that Lady Macbeth is both a strong and weak character in Shakespeare's play (326).
Use italics if referring to an entire book and use quotation marks if the text is part of a larger work (i.e. if it is an article, poem, short story, etc.). For example ...
In book reviews of Pride and Prejudice, it is often stated that the Bennett family ...
When analyzing the poem, "Kubla Khan," P. Smith notes...
Anonymous Works / No Author
Anonymous works with no stated author are referred to by full or shortened title.
One article notes that young offenders generally benefit more from personal counseling and vocational training (“Alberta” 36).
NOTE: This citation refers to an unsigned article titled “Alberta Surplus Funds Education"
When an information source contains no page numbers, just include the author’s surname in the text or in parentheses.
One website describes the side effects associated with this drug (King).
In-text citations for media (e.g. movies or podcasts) can be referenced by including the range of hours, minutes, or seconds discussed in the text.