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How Do I Cite in Turabian (Chicago)?

Turabian (Chicago) Citation

Footnotes or Endnotes

  • Turabian style, notes with bibliography, is shown here. If you require the other form of Turabian, parenthetical citations with reference list, please consult Kate Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. 7th ed. 2007 REF LB2369.T8 2007 Mills 1st floor (Research Help Desk)
  • Provide footnotes/endnotes, within the text, when quoting or paraphrasing someone else’s work
  • Footnotes/endnotes should direct the reader to the entry on the works cited


Quote in-text

    British rule, observes Stuart Cary Welch, “seemed as permanent as Mount Everest.1


     1. Stuart, Cary Welch, “India: Art and Culture. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1985), 421.

Short Form Notes

  • a shortened note is a simplified form of a full note
  • if a source does not have an author (or editor) you can use a title-only note

Example of Short Form Note

    1. Stuart, “India: Art and Culture,” 421.
   1. Stuart, 421
  • if you cite a work that contains the same bibliographic information that appears in the previous note, you may use the abbreviation "Ibid" in your notes.

Example of “Ibid Note” Using Example Above

     1. Stuart, “India: Art and Culture,” 421
    2. Ibid, 422.

Preparing the Bibliography

Your bibliography should include all the sources you quoted, paraphrased, or summarized in your assignment. This listing appears at the end of your assignment. When formatting your bibliography follow these standards:

  1. Arrange sources in alphabetical order by last name of the author, editor or by title if no author exists.
  2. Double space between entries
  3. Indent the second and subsequent lines of each entry fives spaces from the left

Avoiding Plagiarism Checklist

  • Is each use of someone else’s material noted in your assignment?
  • Did you reference your sources for graphs, statistics and other borrowed data?
  • Are quotations from another persons’ work exact? Did you use quotation marks?
  • If you paraphrased or summarized someone else’s material did you use your own words and sentence structure?
  • Does your works cited include all the sources you referred to in your assignment?

 Print Sources

Footnotes/Endnotes Bibliography

Philip Ball, Bright Earth (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2001), 140.


2 or 3 Authors
Kai Bird and Martin J. Sherwin, American Prometheus (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005), 52.


4 or more authors
Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, et al., Like a Family (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987), 114-115.


Book with an Editor
Yves Bonnefoy, New and Selected Poems, ed. John Naughton (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995),35.


Essay or Chapter in a Book
John, Chasteen, “Neocolonialism,” in Born in Blood and Fire. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2001), 190-91.


Academic Journal Article 
Christopher S. Mackay, “Lactantius and the Succession to Diocletian,” Classical Philology 94, no. 2 (1999): 205.


Signed Article Daily Newspaper
Blair Kamin, “Wrigley Building Clearly a Landmark,” Chicago Tribune, July 1, 2005.

Ball, Philip. Bright Earth. New York: Farrar,
     Straus and Giroux, 2001.
2 or 3 Authors
Bird, Kai, and Martin J. Sherwin. American
     Prometheus. New York: Alfred A. Knopf,
4 or more authors
Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd, James Leloudis, Robert
     Korstad, Mary Murphy, Lu Ann Jones, and
     Christopher B. Daly. Like a Family. Chapel  
     Hill: University of North Carolina Press,

Book with an Editor
Bonnefoy, Yves. New and Selected Poems.  

     Edited by John Naughton. Chicago:
     University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Essay or Chapter in a Book
Chasteen, John. “Neocolonialsm,” in Born in
     Blood and Fire. New York: W.W. Norton
     & Company, 2001.
Academic Journal Article 
Mackay, Christopher S. “Lactantius and the
     Succession to Diocletian.” Classical
     Philology 94, no. 2 (1999): 200-225.
Signed Article Daily Newspaper
Kamin, Blair. “Wrigley Building Clearly a
     Landmark.” Chicago Tribune,July 1 2005.

Electronic Sources

Note: If the publisher or discipline requires it, or for especially time-sensitive data, record in parentheses the date the material was last retrieved.

Footnotes/Endnotes Bibliography


Mary Rubio, “Montgomery, Lucy Maud.”
     The Canadian Encyclopedia. 

Articles Accessed Electronically
Rob Fairmichael, “Northern Ireland Chooses New        Possibilities,” Peace Magazine 14, no. 7                  (1998): 23, URL.


Online Newspaper
Glenn Fleishman, “Revolution on the Radio,” New        York Times, July 28, 2005, URL (accessed              August 27, 2001).


Blogs and Wikis
Gary Becker, “The New American Dilemma,” The       Becker-Posner Blog, entry posted March 6,             2006, URL (accessed March 28, 2006).

Rubio, Mary. “Montgomery, Lucy Maud.”
     The Canadian Encyclopedia. 
Articles Accessed Electronically
Fairmichael, Rob. “Northern Ireland Chooses
     New Possibilities.” Peace Magazine 14,
     no.7 (1998): 23-24. URL.
Online Newspaper
Fleishman, Glenn. “Revolution on the Radio.”
     New York Times, July 28, 2005. URL
     (accessed August  27, 2001).

Blogs and Wikis
Becker, Gary. “The New American Dilemma,” The       Becker-Posner Blog, entry posted March 6,             2006, URL (accessed March 28, 2006).

Other Sources

 Footnotes/Endnotes  Works Cited

John Troutman, “Indian Blues: American               Indians and the Politics of Music 1890-             1935” (lecture, McMaster University,                 Hamilton, ON, February 2, 2005).


Andrew Macmillan, interview by Jane Doe,             Toronto, ON, March 5, 2007.


Television Program
Seinfeld, “The Opposite,” episode 86,                   September 22, 2005 (originally aired May          19, 1994).

Troutman, John. “Indian Blues: American
     Indians and the Politics of Music
     1890-1935.” Lecture, McMaster 
     University, Hamilton, ON, February 2,
Macmillan, Andrew. Interview by Jane Doe.
     Toronto, ON. March 5, 2007.
Television Program
Television Programs are not included in reference lists, only in footnotes.

Other Resources

  • The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed.
    REF Z 253 .C53 Mills: 1st Floor (Research Help Desk )
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